Sunday, September 3, 2017

I Read Mein Kampf: So You Don't Have To

YOU CAN THANK ME, I suppose. I once read Mein Kampf, plowing through all 687 sickening pages, and took notes. In light of recent events in Charlottesville, however, it seems we need to reexamine what it was Hitler had to say. And if you have the stomach you can get by with just these notes.

Certainly, the toxic dangers of Nazi ideology were always clear. Hitler’s poisonous ideas are on display on every page. Hatred, particularly, but not exclusively, for Jews, is the foundation of his thought.

For teachers today—especially history teachers—it can be chilling to realize that as a boy Adolf Hitler was dramatically influenced by Dr. Leopold Pötsch. This educator alternately moved Hitler and his classmates to tears or inflamed them with enthusiasm for nationalistic causes.

Hitler explains:

What made our good fortune all the greater was that this teacher knew how to illuminate the past by examples from the present, and how from the past to draw inferences for the present. As a result he had more understanding than anyone else for the daily problems which then held us breathless. He used our budding nationalistic fanaticism as a means of educating us, frequently appealing to our sense of national honor…
     This teacher made history my favorite subject.
     And indeed, though he had no such intention, it was then that I became a little revolutionary. (15)

Even growing up in Austria, young Adolf saw racial danger at every hand: “In the north and south the poison of foreign nations gnawed at the body of our nationality, and even Vienna was visibly becoming more and more of an un-German city.” Soon “the granite foundation” of a future ideology was set. Threats to racial purity were as life-threatening as “incurable tumors.” (15; 22; 29)

Reading Mein Kampf has always been a sickening slog, tedious page after page, punctuated by venomous fights of illogic. Even Hitler’s opinion of the intellectual capacity of his followers drips cynicism. Political ideas, he says, must be “engraved in the memory and feeling of the people by eternal repetition.” “The psyche of the great masses is not receptive to anything that is half-hearted and weak.” (31; 42)

LIKE ALL WHO HATE, he consistently dehumanizes his enemies and justifies violence to further his cause. When workers with different political views tried to drive him from a job site when he was a young man, threatening to toss him off a scaffold, Hitler said he had to decide. If ordinary Aryan workers were blind, was he wrong to believe in the greatness of the Aryan race?

I wrestled with my innermost soul: are these people [the workers] human, worthy to belong to a great nation?
     A painful question; for if it is answered in the affirmative, the struggle for my nationality really ceases to be worth the hardships and sacrifices which the best of us have to make for the sake of such scum; and it is answered in the negative, our nation is pitifully poor in human beings.

It would be years before he answered that question to his satisfaction. Meanwhile, he watched in dismay as Social Democrats, Communists and other political parties spread their competing ideologies in various ways. Hitler railed, for example, against “the brutal daily press, shunning no villainy, employing every means of slander, lying with such a virtuosity that would bend iron beams, all in the gospel of a new humanity.”

Eventually, it dawned on him that his beloved Aryan people had been terrorized. They were victims. Their enemies—those in politics and the press—were seducers. Hitler promised he would break the grip of opposing political groups, including Communists, whose philosophy he compared to a form of “terror.” He would do so by opposing them with “equal terror.” (41-42; 44)

Hitler writes that he had been fooled growing up in Austria. The Jews he came across had “become Europeanized and had taken on a human look.” Only gradually did he grasp the truth. “Wherever I went, I began to see Jews, and the more I saw, the more sharply they became distinguished in my eyes from the rest of humanity.” “By their very exterior you could tell that these were no lovers of water, and, to your distress, you often knew it with your eyes closed. Later I often grew sick to my stomach from the smell of these caftan-wearers.

Worse, “you discovered the moral stains on this ‘chosen people:’”

Was there any form of filth or profligacy, particularly in cultural life, without at least one Jew involved in it?
     If you cut even cautiously into such an abscess, you found, like a maggot in a rotting body, often dazzled by the sudden light—a kike! (52; 57)

Hitler warned against a diabolical Jewish influence in the press, in literature, in art and in theater. “This was pestilence, spiritual pestilence, worse than the Black Death of olden times, and the people were being infected with it.” He began to examine the worldwide press with clear eyes. What he read was “more akin to lies than honest truth; and the writers were—Jews.” (58)

He attacks the Jews again and again in the pages of Mein Kampf. At one point he likens them to a “spider” slowly beginning to “suck the blood out of the people’s pores.” Race purity must be guarded:

What we must fight for is to safeguard the existence and reproduction of our race and our people, the sustenance of our children and the purity of our blood, the freedom and independence of the fatherland, so that our people may mature for the fulfillment of the mission allotted it by the creator of the universe. (58; 193; 214)

Student’s today—and apparently more adults than we’d like to think—may need to be reminded Hitler’s racism and hatred were multifaceted. In one passage he refers to Negroes as “half-apes.” He describes being “repelled” by a “mixture of Czechs, Poles, Hungarians, Ruthenians, Serbs, and Croats.” Worst of all was “the eternal mushroom of humanity—Jews and more Jews.” (123; 394)

As early as 1913, he says he had already “expressed the conviction that the question of the future of the German nation was the question of destroying Marxism.” In Hitler’s warped worldview, Communists were as bad as Jews, and often one and the same. Marxism, he warned, could take form “only in the brain of a monster—not a man.” In another illogical leap, since Communists oppose all forms of religion, he wrote, “If, with the help of his Marxist creed, the Jew is victorious over the other peoples of the world, his crown will be the funeral wreath of humanity and this planet will, as it did thousands of years ago, move through the ether devoid of men.” “By defending myself against the Jew,” he continued, “I am fighting for the work of the Lord.” (63; 65; 155)

Yet another danger was Western-style democracy, for “the parliamentary principle of majority rule sins against the basic aristocratic principle of Nature.” Nature intended superior races and superior individuals to dominate. In a Germanic democracy—and by this road did he expect to rise to power—“the leader is elected, but then enjoys unconditional authority.” (81; 344)

In other words, his plans for a dictatorship should have been clear.

ADOLF HITLER ALSO HAD DEFINITE PLANS for spreading his ideas. “The broad masses have a very limited understanding of politics. By far the greatest share in their ‘political education,’ which in this case is most aptly designated by the word ‘propaganda,’ falls to the account of the press.” Equally important would be “the mass meeting, the only way to exert a truly effective, because personal, influence on large sections of people” and to win their allegiance to the cause:

Particularly the broad masses of people can be moved only by the power of speech. And all great movements are popular movements, volcanic eruptions of human passions and emotional sentiments, stirred either by the cruel Goddess of Distress or by the firebrand of the word hurled among the masses; they are not the lemonade-like outpourings of literary aesthetes and drawing-room heroes. (85; 106; 107)

Hitler believed only key elements of a human population were valuable. So any decision by members of the valuable elements to limit the number of children to whom they gave birth meant “robbing” the nation of its future. The German people must multiply and spread east across Europe.

[It] can certainly not be the intention of Heaven to give one people fifty times as much land and soil in this world as another. In this case we must not let political boundaries obscure for us the boundaries of eternal justice. If this earth really has room for all to live in, let us be given the soil we need for our livelihood.
True, they [neighbor nations] will not be willing to do this. But then the law of self-preservation goes into effect; and what is refused to amicable methods, it is up to the fist to take.  

Poles and Russians and other Slavic peoples barred the way. Someday It would be necessary “to obtain by the German sword sod for the German plow and daily bread for the nation.” (138-139; 140)

When World War I erupted, Hitler was thrilled. “I fell down on my knees and thanked Heaven from an overflowing heart for granting me the good fortune of being permitted to live at this time…A fight for freedom had begun, mightier than the earth had ever seen.”
True. Long years of combat eventually took a toll and Hitler came to accept the “horror” of a war he had anxiously awaited. “The enthusiasm gradually cooled and the exuberant joy was stifled by mortal fear. The time came when every man had to struggle between the instinct of self-preservation and the admonitions of duty…often it was only the last remnant of conscience which decided the issue.” Hitler would steel himself and do his duty, and do it well. (161; 165)

(Here, we might note he won an Iron Cross for bravery, the highest medal the German army bestows.)

The war dragged on for four bloody years. Communist elements inside Germany continued to spread their ideas, what Hitler referred to as “Marxism…this pestilence,” a “venomous plague,” helped by “Jewified universities.” It should have been the duty of any government to destroy this threat, he argued, “to exterminate mercilessly the agitators who were misleading the nation. “If the best men were dying at the front,” he added, “the least we could do was to wipe out the vermin.” (167-169)

That last statement is typical of almost all his thinking. In his mind his enemies were always subhuman—vermin—scum—parasites—incurable tumors—always a threat to the best racial elements.

HITLER RETURNS OFTEN TO THE IMPORTANCE of propaganda. “[Its] effect for the most part,” he explains, “must be aimed at the emotions and only to a very limited degree at the so-called intellect.”

The receptivity of the great masses is very limited, their intelligence is small, but their power of forgetting is enormous. In consequence of these facts, all effective propaganda must be limited to a very few points and must harp on these slogans until the last member of the public understands what you want him to understand by your slogan.

Propaganda was a blunt tool to wield ruthlessly in service to the cause. “It must confine itself to a few points and repeat them over and over. Here, as so often in this world, persistence is the first and most important requirement for success.” The masses are slow to make up their minds “and only after the simplest ideas are repeated thousands of times will the masses finally remember them.” (180-185)

Again he makes clear he has no respect for the intellect of the masses, since “in view of the primitive simplicity of their minds, they more easily fall a victim to a big lie than to a little one, since they themselves lie in little things, but would be ashamed of lies that were too big.” (231)
And in years to come, Hitler, backed by a massive Nazi propaganda machine, would become adept at pedaling the Big Lie.

Even a limited democracy, he complained, left the ballot in the hands of “the mob of the simple or credulous.” A future Nazi government would have to guide the thinking of the simple people. That meant control of all sources of news, as well as control of curriculum in the nation’s schools:

The state, therefore, has the duty of watching over their education and preventing any mischief. It must particularly exercise strict control over the press; for its influence on these people is by far the strongest and most penetrating, since it is applied, not once in a while, but over and over again.
…the state must not forget that all means must serve an end; it must not let itself be confused by the drivel about so-called ‘freedom of the press’ and let itself be talked into neglecting its duty and denying the nation the food which it needs and which is good for it: with ruthless determination it must make sure of this instrument of popular education, and place it in the service of the state and nation. (242)

What exactly was at stake? All the great advances in history, Hitler insisted, “everything we admire on this earth today—science and art, technology and inventions—is only the creative product of a few peoples and originally perhaps of one race.” The key was to protect that one race. “All great cultures of the past perished,” he warned, “only because the originally creative race died out from blood poisoning.”

All the culture, all the results of art, science, and technology that we see before us today, are almost exclusively the creative product of the Aryan. This very fact admits of the not unfounded inference that he alone was the founder of all higher humanity, therefore representing the prototype of all that we understand by the word ‘man.’ (288-290)

SCANNING A MAP OF EUROPE, Hitler saw a future filled with a “multitude of lower-type beings standing at their [the Aryans’] disposal as helpers.” Once in power, the Nazis would employ these lesser humans as “suitable beasts.”

Hitler pounds away at the racial theme:

Blood mixture and the resultant drop in the racial level is the sole cause of the dying out of old cultures; for men do not perish as a result of lost wars, but by the loss of that force of resistance which is contained only in pure blood.
     All who are not of good race in the world are chaff. (291; 294; 296)

By comparison, the Jews banded together out of a “primitive herd instinct.” Left alone in this world, they “would stifle in filth and offal…”

He is and remains the typical parasite, a sponger who like a noxious bacillus keeps spreading as soon as a favorable medium invites him. And the effect of his existence is also like that of spongers: wherever he appears, the host people dies out after a shorter or longer period. (301-302; 305)

The Jew “poisons the blood of others, but preserves his own. The Jew almost never marries a Christian woman; it is the Christian who marries a Jewess. The bastards, however, take after the Jewish side.” “With satanic joy in his face, the black-haired Jewish youth lurks in wait for the unsuspecting girl whom he defiles with his blood, thus stealing her from her people.” To cover the damage, and his own tracks, the Jew, “talks more and more of the equality of all men without regard to race and color. The fools begin to believe him.” (316; 325)

The Aryan race, cutting across national boundaries, bonded by blood, a folk group, must be preserved, protected and strengthened:

…the folkish philosophy…by no means believes in an equality of races, but along with their difference it recognizes their higher or lesser value and feels itself obligated, through this knowledge, to promote the victory of the better and stronger, and demand the subordination of the inferior and weaker in accordance with the eternal will that dominates this universe…It sees not only the different value of the races, but also the different value of individuals…in a bastardized and niggerized world all the concepts of the humanly beautiful and sublime, as well as all ideas of an idealized future of our humanity, would be lost forever. (383)

Aryans must remain apart:

Thus, the highest purpose of a folkish state is concern for the preservation of those original racial elements which bestow culture and create the beauty and dignity of a higher mankind. We, as Aryans, can conceive of the state only as the living organism of a nationality, which not only assures the preservation of this nationality, but by the development of its spiritual and ideal abilities leads it to the highest freedom. (394)

IN THE QUEST FOR RACIAL PURITY, the full apparatus of the state would serve as “a mighty weapon” to which “everyone must submit.” Individual rights would not matter.

[There] is only one holiest human right, and this right is at the same time the holiest obligation, to wit: to see to it that the blood is preserved pure and, by preserving the best humanity, to create the possibility of a nobler development of these beings.
     A folkish state must therefore begin by raising marriage from the level of a continuous defilement of the race, and give it the consecration of an institution which is called upon to produce images of the Lord and not monstrosities halfway between man and ape. (399)

The state “must set race in the center of all life. It must take care to keep it pure. It must declare the child to be the most precious treasure of the people. It must see to it that only the healthy beget children.”

And conversely it must be considered reprehensible: to withhold healthy children from the nation…the wishes and the selfishness of the individual must appear as nothing and submit… [The government] must declare unfit for propagation all who are in any way visibly sick or who have inherited a disease and can therefore pass it on, and put this into actual practice. Conversely, it must take care that the fertility of the healthy woman is not limited by the financial irresponsibility of a state regime which turns the blessing of children into a curse for the parents. (402; 403-404)

Once he rose to power, the Nazis would facilitate early marriage among desirable elements, increasing the number of racially valuable children. Marriage, he warned, “cannot be an end in itself, but must serve the one higher goal, the increase and preservation of the species and the race. This alone is its meaning and task.” Even the “right of personal freedom recedes before the duty to preserve the race.”

What about the less desirable elements?

“The demand that defective people be prevented from propagating equally defective offspring is a demand of the clearest reason and if systematically executed represents the most humane act of mankind.” In other words, the policy outlines of Nazism were already laid down. In years to come tens of thousands of handicapped German children would die in gas chambers as a result. (252; 255)

ONCE HITLER TOOK POWER, shaping proper racial attitudes would become a job for the schools. He explains: “…education in particular must first of all consider and promote physical health; for taken in the mass, a healthy, forceful spirit will be found only in a healthy and forceful body.” Every day, one hour of physical training in the morning and one in the afternoon would be required. If stress were placed on physical beauty, “the seduction of hundreds of thousands of girls by bow-legged, repulsive Jewish bastards would not be possible.” (407; 412)

The schools would be a critical tool in spreading Nazi ideology. Science, world history and cultural history would all be taught in such a way as to foster “national pride,” “so that when the young man leaves his school he is not a half pacifist, democrat, or something else, but a whole German.”

The crown of the folkish state’s entire work of education and training must be to burn the racial sense and racial feeling into the instinct and the intellect, the heart and brain of the youth entrusted to it. No boy and no girl must leave school without having been led to an ultimate realization of the necessity and essence of blood purity. (426; 427)

Nor was there any secret in how Hitler hoped to rise to power. His political party would be protected by special guards, organized into military units, and these “monitor troops must be preceded by the reputation of not being a debating club, but a combat group determined to go to any length.” (490) Followers would be stirred with heavy doses of martial music. The movement would be bound by symbols, including the Nazi flag, which Hitler claims he designed in 1920.

In the red we see the social idea of the movement, in white the nationalistic idea, in the swastika the mission of the struggle for victory of the Aryan man, and, by the same token, the victory of the idea of creative work, which as such always has been and always will be anti-Semitic. (497)

Once united under Nazi rule, Germany would not repeat mistakes made during World War I. In those years the best young men, “filled with fervent love of their fatherland, with great personal courage or the highest consciousness of duty” volunteered to fight and even die for their country. When Germany was forced to surrender in November 1918, “it was not the German people as such that committed this act of Cain, but its deserters, pimps, and other rabble that shun the light.” (520-521)

Evil politicians, puppets of Marxists and Jews, stabbed Germany in the back. Punishment would come once Hitler rose to power. “[A] German national court must judge and execute some ten thousand of the organizing and hence responsible criminals of the November betrayal and everything that goes with it,” he insisted. In other words, the future would be filled with gas chambers:

If at the beginning of the War and during the War twelve or fifteen thousand of these Hebrew corrupters of the people had been held under poison gas, as happened to hundreds of thousands of the very best German workers in the field [of battle], the sacrifice of millions at the front would not have been in vain. On the contrary: twelve thousand scoundrels eliminated in time might have saved the lives of a million real Germans, valuable for the future. (679)

CALLING ON READERS TO JOIN HIM in a titanic struggle, he promised he and his party would elevate the “Jewish question… transforming it into the driving impulse of a great people’s movement.” The Jew, Hitler said, was “the mortal enemy of Aryan humanity and all Christendom.”

This contamination of our blood, blindly ignored by hundreds of thousands of our people, is carried on systematically by the Jew today. Systematically these black parasites of the nation defile our inexperienced young blond girls and thereby destroy something which can no longer be replaced in this world. (545; 561; 562)

The French were also a mortal threat. Of them, Hitler says: “This people, which is basically becoming more and more negrified, constitutes in its tie with the aims of Jewish world domination an enduring danger for the existence of the white race in Europe.” The French were a “mulatto state,” infected by the blood of “lower humanity.” The German people must rise as one, having “recognized racial pollution as the original sin of humanity,” and defeat France once and for all. (624; 644)

Nazi leaders would have to:

…find the courage to gather our people and their strength for an advance along the road that will lead this people from its present restricted living space to new land and soil, and hence also free it from the danger of vanishing from the earth or serving others as a slave nation.

State boundaries are made by man and changed by man. The fact that a nation has succeeded in acquiring an undue amount of soil constitutes no higher obligation that it should be recognized eternally. At most it proves the strength of the conquerors and the weakness of nations. And in this case, right lies in this strength alone. If the German nation today, penned into an impossible area, faces a lamentable future, this is no more a commandment of Fate than revolt against this state of affairs is an affront to Fate. No more than any higher power has promised another nation more territory than the German nation, or is offended by the fact of this unjust distribution of the soil. Just as our ancestors did not receive the soil on which we live today as a gift from Heaven, but had to fight for it at the risk of their lives, in the future no folkish state will win soil for us and hence life for our people, but only the might of a victorious sword.

The Aryan people—the folkish nation—must turn its “gaze toward the land in the east.” The Germans must “shift to the soil policy of the future.” And in that, Hitler’s meaning was again crystal clear. We “can primarily have in mind only Russia and her vassal border states.” (646; 653-654)

If war did come what could justify an attack on Germany’s neighbors, Poland and Russia? Hitler explained: “Never forget that the rulers of present-day Russia are common blood-stained criminals; that they are the scum of humanity…that these rulers belong to a race which combines, in a rare mixture, bestial cruelty and an inconceivable gift for lying.” He claimed “the international Jew…completely dominates Russia.” The Bolsheviks were the “spawn of hell.”

It was imperative that Germany expand:

Never regard the Reich as secure unless for centuries to come it can give every scion of or people his own parcel of soil. Never forget that the most sacred right on this earth is a man’s right to have earth to till with his own hands, and the most sacred sacrifice the blood that a man sheds for this earth.

Today we count eighty million Germans in Europe! This foreign policy will be acknowledged correct only if, after scarcely a hundred years, there are two hundred and fifty million Germans on this continent, and not living penned in as factory coolies for the rest of the world, but: as peasants and workers, who guarantee each other’s livelihoods by their labor. (661-662; 664; 673)

As for the Jew, “No nation,” Hitler wrote, “can remove his hand from its throat except by the sword.” (651)

WRITING IN 1923, Hitler was painting a picture of a grim future ahead. Rising to power a decade later, and with accelerating brutality once World War II was begun, tens of millions would die as a result.

There was never any doubt about what Hitler intended to do.


 (All quotes are from a translation by Ralph Mannheim first published by Houghton Mifflin in 1943. Mein Kampf was published twenty years before.)



Thursday, August 17, 2017

Explaining Nazis to Young People (and President Trump)

I NEVER THOUGHT I’D LIVE to see a day the President of the United States couldn’t come out and denounce Nazis and white supremacists. Of course, I never imagined this nation would elevate such a despicable individual as Donald J. Trump to high office.

In my opinion, the man has been a menace to fundamental American values from the first moment he descended the elevator in Trump Tower and started blasting entire groups of human beings. But you’d think anyone with even a precarious grasp of history would realize Nazis (and their kindred spirits, neo-Nazis today), are a separate category, not to be confused with any other kind of protesters.

So here’s a refresher on who the Nazis were—and what kind of ideology the alt-right was celebrating last weekend in Charlottesville.

***

WHAT FOLLOWS IS A READING I used to pass out to students in my seventh and eighth grade history classes. It was always a tough read. I knew, every year, many would cry. When I read about children being slaughtered, I sometimes cried myself.

I believed my students needed to confront evil and consider ways to combat its spread. Today it seems we need to remind GOP leaders and many avid Trump supporters exactly who the Nazis were.

The reading I prepared for students follows. If there are any teachers who might want to use it, feel free:


Hitler’s Black Harvest

            Most students today have heard about the Holocaust. They know gas chambers were disguised as showers. They realize Jews had to wear yellow six-pointed stars. Some know six million Jews died. Only a few understand that non-Jewish victims totaled an additional ten million.

            In the end, it seems impossible to come to grips with the horror. To understand the truth we must focus on the broken human heart. We must go beneath the surface of the printed page. 

We must dive into an ocean of blood.     

We must watch as German troops arrest Israel Lewi. We must see his tearful daughter rush up to say goodbye to her beloved father. We must see a soldier’s anger as he orders the poor girl to open her mouth. Then gasp as he fires his pistol down Liebe Lewi’s throat. 

We must see Icek Bekerman steal a piece of leather to make into a pair of shoelaces, from the shop where he works as a Nazi slave. See him caught. Then see him hanged.  

We must see Sophie Scholl and brother Hans, not Jews but “good Germans,” protest Nazi rule. See them paint: “Freedom!” and “Down with Hitler!” on building walls. We must shudder as they are arrested, placed on trial, sentenced to death, and beheaded.

It is not easy to watch what we must watch. And sometimes we must listen. Hear the cries of a nameless Polish prisoner. His head has been caved in and his legs broken when police torture him to make him talk. His battered body makes a thump when he is thrown into a wood coffin and sent to the ovens to be burned. Listen with care. Listen as he regains consciousness at the last second, screaming: “Open up! Open up! I am still alive!”

Listen. Let his terrified shouts enter your soul. Then you may be ready to understand.

*

            From the moment they rose to power, Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party[1] were clear about what they planned to do. Above all, the “race purity” of the Aryan blood must be upheld. Human progress depended on nothing less. Progress would be determined by the success of superior races. Jews, Russians and Poles, homosexuals, the retarded and the handicapped “reproduced like vermin.” These inferior types “polluted” the human race. But the Nazis dreamed of a world in which they had no place. In the twisted Nazi mind it was simple. “Nature is cruel,” Hitler argued. “Therefore, we, too, may be cruel.” The weaker races must die—or live to serve the Aryan race as slaves. One Nazi leader explained their whole plan calmly and clearly. Killing Jews would be like destroying bugs.

It would be the same as “getting rid of lice...a matter of cleanliness.”

            “Force is the first law,” Hitler once said. Force was the tool he preferred for governing.  Long before he came to power, he organized the “Sturmabteilung” or “SA,” his own private army. These brown-shirted “storm troopers,” as they were called, were assigned one task. They must beat, silence and even kill Hitler’s political opponents. An even more powerful tool for evil came later with creation of the “Schutzstaffel” or “SS.”   Dressed in crisp black uniforms, with a “death’s head” symbol on their caps, and lightning bolts on their collars, SS forces were given the job of eliminating millions of human beings. An important branch of the SS was the Gestapo, a secret police force with unlimited power and unmatched skill at torture.

            German Jews were the first to suffer when Hitler rose to power.[2] First came “legal” moves, like the Law against the Overcrowding of German Schools. Under strict guidelines college admissions were closed to Jews. Soon they were removed from all government service. Next, they were prevented from entering theaters or public pools. Sexual relations and marriage between Aryans and Jews were outlawed.[3] There were special seats on buses. Then laws were passed forbidding Jews to work as teachers, lawyers or doctors. 

            Ernst Meier was only a boy when he had his first brush with hate. It came on a day his school had scheduled a field trip. When his teacher read a list of those allowed to go his name was missing. Sadly, Meier, a Jew, began to walk away. With a shout the teacher called on the class to attack: “Boys, get him and knock out of him any idea he may have about coming to school anymore!”

            Widespread violence exploded in November 1938 after a Jewish student attacked and killed a German official in Paris. In the dark hours of November 9-10, known since as Kristillnacht, or “Night of Glass,” German mobs attacked Jewish homes, shops and synagogues. Thousands of businesses were looted [robbed]. Two hundred homes were destroyed. Every synagogue in Germany was vandalized. Dozens of Jews were murdered, including one young boy who was thrown from a third-story window. In days to come the Gestapo arrested 26,000 Jewish men, women and children and carted them away to prison.

            Slowly but surely, Nazi control clamped down tighter and tighter. New rules required all teachers, no matter what their beliefs, to swear obedience to the “Fuhrer” (that is: to Hitler, the “leader”). Government officials took control of newspapers and radio. SS censors now decided what books might be printed. Bonfires were fueled with those deemed unacceptable. All political parties, except the Nazi Party, were outlawed. Bernard Licthenberg, a Catholic politician, spoke out against the attacks on Kristillnacht. So Gestapo agents dragged him away, beat him up, and jailed him for two years. After 1936 a special law freed the SS police from all legal controls, except the will of Adolf Hitler.

            Soon no one was safe, whether Jew or not. The mentally ill were granted “mercy deaths” under a secret plan known as T-4. Handicapped German children[4] were also marked for destruction. One SS doctor preferred to slowly starve such children to death. Most were taken from families and sent to government “hospitals.” There they were secretly gassed and their bodies buried. Homosexuals were also among the victims. Arrested and sent to prison, they wore pink triangles on their uniforms, just as Jews wore yellow stars. Terrible medical experiments were tried to “cure” them. Many died as a result. Most were simply eliminated. One victim was SS Commander Heinrich Himmler’s gay nephew. 

He was gassed by order of his own uncle.
              
*

            Mass race murder, or genocide, began once Germany invaded Poland in 1939. Now Hitler turned attention to the East, to lands he dreamed of settling with waves of German pioneers. First he would seize Polish soil. Later he would take over great stretches of Russia. But the soil was already occupied. Existing populations must give way. The Poles, Russians and others were Untermenschen, or “under men,” useful only for slave labor. Let them have education enough to understand simple orders, the Nazis said.  Teach them enough to read basic traffic signs. Let them reproduce only to serve their masters. 

            And if they died off? 

            So much the better.

            During World War II, ten million slaves labored under the Nazis’ iron fist. Thousands dug underground factories to protect German industry from U. S. and British air attack. Others mined coal, picked crops or assembled grenades. They built highways and made roofing tile. Primo Levi, a Jewish slave, survived because his training as a chemist made him valuable to a German drug manufacturer. Mordecai Wulkan lived because his jeweler’s skills were in demand. One task he was given involved sorting a suitcase full of blood-smeared gold teeth—removed from the mouths of countless gassing victims. Other slave workers made beautiful desk sets and bookends from green marble. Some of the most educated wrote college papers for German medical students too lazy to do their own work. 

            Thousands died every month from starvation and mistreatment. If a slave was caught loafing or refused to follow orders they were marked for “special treatment.” That is: they were shot. Those who forced themselves to go on, who did not give up amid the horrors, survived on a diet of 1,000 calories per day. Karl Peterik got by because he ate oats meant for a horse he was tending. Medical care was nonexistent. Slave women who became pregnant were sent to the gas chambers. Prisoners were packed into barracks, three, four, and even six to a bunk, sleeping on filthy straw. Many were covered with lice until “their clothing looked as if it had been sprinkled with poppy seeds.” In the labor camp at Birkenau huge rats scuttled about, gnawing corpses [dead bodies], and attacking those too weak to fight them off. 

*

            Naturally, Jews came in for special attention. With most of the modern world at war, Hitler felt the time was right for “The Final Solution.” This would mean the elimination of all Jewish population.

            Mass death.

            When Nazi armies conquered new territory, Jews were herded into neighborhoods called ghettoes. Here, especially in Poland, only Jews were allowed to live. And here they must remain, penned up like cattle. In Vilna Ghetto a doctor saw people squeezed into tiny rooms, each person’s living space “narrow as the grave.” In Warsaw 500,000 people crammed into a few square miles. The Jewish sector of the city was walled off from the outside world. At every entrance the Germans posted signs which read: “Warning: Epidemic Zone.” Jews caught outside the ghetto faced almost certain execution.

            Living conditions were terrible. Food was scarce. Nights were filled with the cries of hungry children. When one Jewish mother broke the rules and bought an egg she and the Polish man who sold it to her were shot. Another desperate family boiled straw for “soup.” In Lublin Ghetto families lived in cattle stalls. The water supply was filthy. There was nothing to eat “but potato broth and stale, black bread.” Guards shot passers-by without reason, because they could. Bodies littered the streets. The living stumbled along like people going to a funeral.

            Again and again, the Nazis entered Jewish ghettos and rounded up victims to be “shipped to the East for resettlement.”[5] No one knew what this meant. Those who moved too slowly did not live to find out. When SS troops entered the hospital in Cracow and ordered patients out, Dr. Rosalia Blau protested. Many of the children under her care had scarlet fever and were too ill to move. A German drew his pistol and shot her in the head. Then the patients were murdered in a blast of automatic weapons fire.

            Death might come at any moment. The unthinkable became routine. During one raid, guards dragged an old woman down a flight of steps. Her thin leg slipped between the railings and stuck. SS men kept jerking until the bones cracked with a snap. In Lodz Ghetto soldiers threw newborn babies out of high windows into streets. When the first tiny body fell, witnesses could not credit [trust] their senses. “At first few of us believed it was actually a live, newborn baby,” said one. “We thought it was an object of some kind until we saw another and another being hurled out the window and into the waiting truck.”

In the end, he explained sadly, “We had no more tears left. Our eyes had dried out.”     

*

            It is hard to read about such crimes, hard to believe humans could be guilty of such cruelty. Yet worse horrors lay ahead when Hitler invaded Russia in 1941. Now, special army units were sent out to round up Jews, Russian civilians, and other “sub humans.” Long, deep ditches were dug. Victims were gathered by the hundreds, even the thousands, made to strip—and then the shooting began. It was “hard work” for the SS men, this mowing down of human beings! “All we did was shoot Jews, shoot Jews all the time,” one soldier said in a letter to his wife. “My arm hurt from shooting.” 

            And well it should: for the slaughter was immense.

            Hermann Graebe witnessed one mass killing. Even though he took no part, what he saw turned his soul to ice. Trucks were bringing in victims. Guards were hustling them off. Whips cracked in the air as prisoners undressed: shoes in one pile, coats in another, underwear in a third. Graebe was surprised by how little crying he heard. People “stood about in family groups, kissed each other, said farewells and waited for a sign.” Then they moved to the edge of the pit where they would be shot. 

A family caught his eye:

An old woman with snow-white hair was holding a one-year-old child in her arms and singing to it and tickling it. The child was cooing with delight. The parents were looking on with tears in their eyes. The father was holding the hand of a boy about ten years old and speaking to him softly; the boy was fighting his tears. The father pointed to the sky, stroked his head and seemed to explain something to him.


Then a guard counted off twenty prisoners, including the old woman and her family. They stepped closer to the pits and were cut down in a storm of bullets.

            All over Europe the massacre commenced. In September 1941, the Jews of Kiev, in Russia, were rounded up by SS units and driven to a nearby valley. Here at a place called Babi Yar, 33,771 human beings were shot down in great heaps until their bodies filled a deep ravine. Dina Pronicheva was meant to rest among them. But the shot which struck her did not kill her. Still, she fell into the bloody valley, among the piles of the dead and dying: 

All around and beneath her she could hear strange submerged sounds, groaning, choking and sobbing: many of the people were not dead yet. The whole mass of bodies kept moving slightly as they settled down and were pressed tighter and tighter by the movements of the ones who were still living.


When the killing ended, workers began throwing dirt atop the bodies. The young girl fought back her fear of being buried alive, knowing she might be shot again if she showed any signs of life. By nightfall the killers were “tired” and wanted to go home. Pronicheva waited until they were gone, then managed to claw her way to the surface and survive. 

In a sense she had crawled from the mouth of Hell.

            Only the awful details vary from place to place. At one execution site a beautiful girl stood in line, dazed and knowing she faced death. “She had wonderful eyes,” one witness recalled. A German officer looked her over. Then he called for her to step forward. “What a pity to bury such beauty under the earth,” he said. He told her she could go. Follow the road by which she had come. Go! Don’t look back! Slowly the young woman took a step. Edged away. Then another. Perhaps she might find some path to safety! Without warning now, the officer pulled his revolver and shot her in the back.

Another time two little girls, two friends, held each other and begged for mercy. They were shot and “fell together in their embrace.”  Always the bodies crumpled until they filled the pits and the dirt covered them forever. At one site, a German officer admitted seeing “a kind of spring of blood gushing from the earth.”

*

            The special SS units made good progress “cleansing” wide stretches of Eastern Europe. But it was hard to shoot so many people and a better “system” was needed. Out of this need arose gas chambers and death camps like Auschwitz and Treblinka. Here victims arrived by the trainload, to be gassed in large chambers disguised as showers. Sometimes guards told new arrivals to tie their shoes together so they could find them after their “bath.” There were numbered hooks for hanging clothes and signs in many languages saying: “Showers.” One guard encouraged victims to move faster. “Hurry,” he lied. “Coffee is waiting. Coffee is ready in camp.” At another camp flowers were planted round the gas chambers. Meanwhile a band of pretty Jewish girls in white blouses and navy-blue skirts entertained those about to die. The music they were ordered to play was always merry.

            As the war dragged on more and more people came to understand the truth. But what choice did anyone have when madmen ran the madhouse? At Treblinka guards beat and shot people the moment they stepped from the rail cars. The rest were herded like cattle to the slaughterhouse. One witness watched an SS officer order a bigger boy to sit down on the ground, taking a smaller boy on his knee: “Then he shot them both with one bullet.” 

Vera Kriegel remembered similar scenes at Auschwitz: “Children were having their heads beaten in...by SS men with their gun butts, and some were being thrown into a smoking pit. I was confused: I thought this was some sort of animal kingdom or perhaps I was already in Hell.”

Then by the hundreds it was into the showers. Whole families. Whole villages. And yet, even in these last moments, people had faint hope. For who could imagine murder on such a scale? Who could believe it was going to happen?

            All too soon, Zyklon B, a gas designed as a pesticide [bug killer], came pouring through the vents. With their final breathes a group of Polish prisoners could be heard singing their national anthem. Other victims were so tightly packed they died standing. Kurt Gerstein reported that it was easy to recognize families among the dead. “They were still holding hands, stiffened in death,” he noted, “so that it was difficult to tear them apart in order to clear the chamber for the next load.”

            This task fell to slave laborers. For in every death camp a few prisoners were allowed to live to perform tasks for which the SS had no stomach. Whipped to keep moving, half-starved, these poor men and women appeared to be nothing more than “corpse-colored skeletons.” Yet—as long as they could carry on—they avoided a journey to the gas chamber. Workers at one death camp were under strict orders to carry the bodies of small children over both shoulders. 

This was done to save time.

            Disposing of millions of bodies was a problem. At first, most were burned in large pits. Later special ovens called crematoria were designed. Still, it was no easy task. A camp like Auschwitz could exterminate 6,000 human beings every day. Their ashes alone filled a rail car. Human fat built up inside smokestacks, a foot thick, until prisoners scraped it free. At one camp ash was used as insulation between the walls of buildings. At another it was spread to make pathways between buildings. It was not unusual to see teeth and vertebrae underfoot.

            Nothing of “value” was wasted. Prison workers checked the mouths of the dead and knocked out any gold teeth. The long hair of women was shaved and saved to be made into felt boots. One camp commander salvaged [saved; recovered] 22,000 pairs of children’s shoes. Another gathered mittens and stocking caps. On his first day in camp Rudolf Vrba, a slave at Auschwitz, noticed hundreds of baby carriages, “but still I did not wonder where the babies were.” Later he would see prisoners sitting at tables, squeezing out tube after tube of toothpaste. At first he wondered why the Germans wasted the time. Then he realized workers were looking for hidden diamonds.

*

            Much of what we know about the camps comes from those lucky enough to survive. At Birkenau, female inmates had one large enamel pot. At meal time it was used to carry soup. By day it served as wash basin, on rare occasions when anyone was allowed to clean up. At night, when prisoners were forbidden to go outside to the toilet, the pot served to contain bodily wastes. At Buchenwald prisoners were tied to a heavy wagon full of stone and sand and forced to pull it, singing as they went. SS guards laughed and called them “singing horses.”

            The entire Nazi “system” was designed to seem senseless. Guards urinated on prisoners, wetting them from head to toe. They forced Jewish girls to clean bathrooms with their blouses. Men with diarrhea were refused permission to go, so “their own pants had to serve as toilets.” At Buchenwald, violation of orders led to a beating with a heavy cane on the bare buttocks. Victims were whipped in front of rows of assembled prisoners, “until flesh fell off in scraps.” On one occasion a camp inmate was scheduled for beating. His brother stepped forward and begged to take his place. The SS officer laughed and ordered both brothers whipped instead.

            Guards sometimes tied prisoners’ hands behind their backs. Then they ran a rope around their wrists and dangled them from trees. One victim was hung up because SS men wanted him to reveal the names of inmates involved in forbidden activities. A witness explained what happened next: 
...he would have talked, but he does not know them [the names]. His hands are tied behind his back and he is hung from a pulley by his wrists. After a few seconds his arms come out of their sockets and remain twisted upward, vertical behind his back.

            Others suffered “interrogation until confession.” That is: they were tortured until they talked. One 19-year-old Czech prisoner refused to cooperate despite every kind of abuse.

Police tried a fresh approach. The boy’s mother was in custody. But she had committed suicide to end her miseries. Gestapo agents cut off her head and brought it to her son’s cell to break his will.

            If guards had any feelings of kindness most lost them quickly amid the horrors.[6] One camp commander and his wife looked for prisoners with tattoos and had them gassed. Then the skin was used to make lamp shades and handbags. In Buchenwald, slave laborers worked in a stone quarry with armed SS troops high above. When guards were bored they bet cigarettes or a beer that they could kill a prisoner below with one toss of a stone. Other victims were thrown into a long deep trench that served as the camp latrine [toilet] and left to drown.  

            Terrible medical experiments were carried out by SS personnel. (“Black murderers in white doctors’ coats,” as one survivor labeled them.) There were tests to see how much cold a man could stand, so the German air force might design better jackets for pilots. Naked Russian prisoners were left outside in bitter cold. Others were submerged in icy water to see how long they survived. When body temperatures fell to 82.5 F, one doctor reported, death was certain, “despite all rescue attempts.”   Other experiments measured the effects of flying at high altitude. Careful notes show what happened to one Jew. Tested, without oxygen, at the equal of 29,400 feet, he “began to perspire and roll his head” after four minutes. After five minutes spasms began. Ten minutes: unconsciousness. 

            Thirteen. Death.  

            In fact, madness had no limits. SS doctors attempted bone transplants on prisoners, hoping new techniques might save wounded German soldiers’ lives. Jews were infected with malaria to test experimental drugs. Dr. Josef Mengele, known as “The Angel of Death,” was interested in blood transfusions. Often he used twins in his experiments. Once he sewed two together, connected their veins, and studied their combined circulation. Others used x-rays and drugs to cause sterilization of prisoners. Such methods, one researcher claimed, might provide Germany with “a new and extremely effective weapon” in the battle against “inferior peoples.”

            So it was. Horror on horror. Terror layered in terror.

            Madness over all. 

            Our horrible story is ended; but even now we have exposed only fragments of an awful picture. It is a truth so terrible it remains almost beyond our imagination. As Primo Levi once explained, “We, the survivors, are not the true witnesses.”  

Only the dead could tell us everything. 

It would require 64,000 pages like the ones you have just read to list the names of those who died in Hitler’s black harvest.




Your work:

1. Find definitions for: 

a) Holocaust                
b) synagogue                
c) storm troopers
d) genocide                  
e) Aryan                       
f) superior
g) inferior                    
h) vermin                     
i) ghetto                      


2. What was the role of the SA under Hitler? The role of the SS?

3. What was the Gestapo? How was it different from police in most countries?

4. What was “The Final Solution?”

5. On June 6, 1942, a Jewish historian wrote in his diary, “We want our suffering to remain on record for future generations and for the whole world.” Why do you think he believed it was important for us to know what happened?

6. Describe what a person would see and experience as they approached and entered a gas chamber.

7. As one Jewish girl was about to be shot she turned to face her murderer. “Look straight into these eyes, you coward, and shoot! These eyes will pursue you and haunt you all your life!” Why do you think she did this? 

8. List as many groups and types of individuals as you can who suffered at the hands of the Nazi killers.


I was surprised the first time I used this reading:
Many of my young students did not recognize this man.





[1] The word Nazi comes from the name of Hitler’s political party, the “Nazional” or National Party.
[2] Remember: Adolf Hitler was elected.
[3] Hitler warned that children of mixed race were “halfway between man and ape.”
[4] Nazi leaders referred to such individuals as “useless eaters.”  

[5] Thousands of Jews were tricked in this way and loaded on rail cars. They were told they were being sent to Russia to work on farms. Instead the trains headed straight for death camps like Belzec and Sobibor.
[6] There were some who tried. Oswald Bosko, an SS man, smuggled children out of camp in cardboard boxes. When he was discovered he too was executed.